Worldwide, there’s a growing awareness of the value of pollinators, which is heartening for those of us who love food and biological diversity. However, pollinator populations continue their noticeable decline, and recently several bee species have been listed or proposed as federal endangered species. Individual gardeners and property owners can help by finding alternatives to common gardening practices that hurt bees.
1. Relying on pesticides
Pesticides is a general term that encompasses the more specific terms insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. All three types of pesticides can hurt bees. Neonicotinoids (a class of insecticides) have been implicated in bee dieoffs, as have sprays targeted toward other insects (such as a recent incident that wiped out millions of bees in North Carolina). Fungicides have only been studied recently with respect to their effect on bees, but have been shown to weaken colonies. Herbicides don’t target bees directly but do kill their forage plants.
Alternatives: Rethink your landscape and its management to make pesticide use a last resort, not a part of your routine. Include diverse plants, a water source, and wild corners to foster a diverse spectrum of insects that will help keep each other’s populations in check through competition and predation. Create habitat for dragonflies, birds, toads, and bats — all ferocious insect predators.
2. Fall deadheading
Now is the season when many gardeners just want to clean up the dead stalks and seedheads. However, what people may view as messy leftovers from the summer garden are valuable habitat elements that provide food and shelter for many small creatures, including bees.
Alternatives: Keep your stalks and seedheads standing into very early spring. This will not only benefit your resident bees, but will give other insects and birds food through the winter, give larvae a place to develop into next year’s pollinators, and shelter hibernating garden helpers.
3. Removing fallen leaves
Bagging fallen leaves and sending them offsite can be a lot of work and a waste of a great garden resource, as well as eliminating habitat for beneficial critters. If you use a leafblower, it can be unhealthy and unpleasant for people as well.
Alternatives: Find ways to use your leaves as the great resource that they are in your garden. For moving leaves, use a rake on lawns and a broom for hard surfaces.
4. Bug zapping
Bug zappers kill every flying thing that is small enough and unlucky enough to run into them. They are not a smart choice for addressing problem insect populations; they may make your problem worse by killing off helpful insect predators such as dragonflies.
Alternatives: Remove habitat for problem insects near human-use areas of your landscape. Learn more about bees in order to reduce your chances of negative encounters; I recommend Eric Grissell’s fascinating, passionate, and surprisingly readable book Bees, Wasps, and Ants: The Indispensable Role of Hymenoptera in Gardens.
May we all learn to live in harmony with bees, soon enough to reverse their population decline and ensure future generations of human-bee cooperation. Happy gardening!
on October 5, 2016 at 4:16 pm, in the category Gardening on the Planet.